Contrast refers to the arrangement of converse elements such as light vs. dark colors, rough vs. smooth, large vs. small, in a space to create visual interest.
Pattern is the repetition of an element or elements in a work. A designer achieves a pattern through the use of colors, lines, and/or shapes.
Texture is the visual and particularly the tactile quality of the surface of an object. The use of diverse textures adds tremendous visual interest to the design of a space.
Color is a fundamental design element with particularly expressive qualities. The proper use of color is crucial to effective composition in design.